Ronald GallimoreEveryone's a teacher to someone (John Wooden)

Project CHILD

A 15 year longitudinal study of developmentally delayed children features quantitative and qualitative study of family adaptation, funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. It built on the foundational work of a prior project directed by Barbara K. Keogh and Lucinda Bernheimer (Project REACH).

Summary of Findings

Cognitive scores of children with developmental delays identified in preschool are stable or decrease over time. The rate of change is associated with the severity of the delay and with children's temperament. Over two-thirds of children with delays identified in the preschool years require special education services throughout childhood.

Families were interviewed over a ten year period about functional accommodations made to sustain daily routines for a child with disabilities. By late childhood, on average
families had broadened the scope of their accommodations but reduced the intensity with which they made them. Accommodations are a continuing feature of family adaptation to developmental disabilities in late childhood rather than a feature of certain developmental periods. They are most consistently associated with child characteristics that
directly impact the daily routine.

These findings underscore the need for early and continuing services for families and children, rather than exclusive focus on early years. Compatibility of interventions with existing daily routines of families settings was an issue in many families. Interventions were unlikely to be sustained if the families had to make changes in their daily routines which were too discrepant from those that had evolved from their own accommodations. This conclusion is consistent with earlier research which indicated that it is more efficient and effective to design interventions that capitalize on existing cultural features than attempt to create new repertoires and contexts.

An extended summary of Project CHILD findings was presented in Gallimore, R., Keogh, B. & Bernheimer, C. (1999). The nature and long-term implications of early developmental delays: A summary of evidence from two longitudinal studies. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 22, 105-135.

Gallimore, Keogh, & Bernheimer (1999) PDF

Key Publications



Bernheimer, L. P., Gallimore, R., & Kaufman, S. Z. (1993). Clinical assessment in a family context: A four group typology of family experiences with young children with developmental delays. Journal of Early Intervention, 17 (3), 253-269.

Bernheimer, L. P., Gallimore, R., & Weisner, T. S. (1990). Ecocultural theory as a context for the Individual Family Service Plan. Journal of Early Intervention, 14 (3), 219-233.

Bernheimer, L. P., & Keogh, B. K. (1986). Developmental disabilities in preschool children. In B. K. Keogh (Ed.), Advances in Special Education (Volume 5) (pp.61-93). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Bernheimer, L. P., & Keogh, B. K. (1988). Stability of cognitive performance of children with developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92 (6), 539-542.

Bernheimer, L. P., Keogh, B. K., Coots, J. J. (1993). From research to practice: Support for developmental delay as a preschool category of exceptionality. Journal of Early Intervention, 17 (2), 97-106.

Bernheimer, L. P., & Keogh, B. K. (1995). Weaving interventions into the fabric of everyday life: An approach to family assessment. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 15 (4), 415-433.

Clare, L. & Garnier, H. (2000). Parents' goals for adolescents diagnosed with developmental delays in early childhood. Journal of Early Adolescence. 20, 4, 442-466.

Clare, L., Garnier, H., & Gallimore, R. (1998). Parents’ developmental expectations and child characteristics: A longitudinal study of children with developmental delays and their families. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 103 (2), 117-129.

Coots, J. J. (1998). Family resources and parent participation in schooling activities for their children with developmental delays. The Journal of Special Education, Winter 31 (4), 498-520.

Gallimore, R., Bernheimer, L., & Weisner, T. S. (1999). Family life is more than managing crisis: Broadening the agenda of research on families adapting to childhood disability. In R. Gallimore et al. (Eds.), Developmental Perspectives on High Incidence Handicapping Conditions Papers in Honor of Barbara K .Keogh (pp. 55-80). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum & Associates.

Gallimore, R., Bernheimer, L., MacMillan, D., Speece, D., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.) (1999). Developmental Perspectives on High Incidence Handicapping Conditions Papers in Honor of Barbara K. Keogh. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum & Associates.

Gallimore, R., Coots, J. J., Weisner, T. S., Garnier, H. E., & Guthrie, D. (1996). Family responses to children with early developmental delays II: Accommodation intensity and activity in early and middle childhood. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101 (3), 215-232.

Gallimore, R., Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1999). The nature and long-term implications of early developmental delays: A summary of evidence from two longitudinal studies. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 22, 105-135.

Gallimore, R., Weisner, T. S., Kaufman, S. Z., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1989). The social construction of ecocultural niches: Family accommodation of developmentally delayed children.
American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94 (3), 216-230.

Gallimore, R., Weisner, T. S., Guthrie, D., Bernheimer, L. P., & Nihira, K. (1993). Family responses to young children with developmental delays: Accommodation activity in ecological and cultural context. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98 (2), 185-206.

Hecht, B. F., Levine, H. G., & Mastergeorge, A. B. (1993). Conversational roles of children with developmental delays and their mothers in natural and semi-structured situations. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 27 (4), 419-430.

Juvonen, J., Keogh, B. K., Ratekin, C., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1992). Children's and teachers' views of school-based competencies and their relation to children's peer status. School Psychology Review, 21 (3), 410-422.

Kaufman, S. (1988). Retarded isn't stupid, Mom! Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Keogh, B. K. (1999). Reflections on a research career: One thing leads to another.
Exceptional Children, 65(3), 295-300.

Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1987). Developmental delays in preschool school children: Assessment over time. European Journal of Social Needs Education, 2 (4), 221-220.

Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1995). Etiologic conditions as predictors of children's problems and competencies in elementary school. Journal of Child Neurology, Volume 10, Supplement Number 1, S100-105.

Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1998). Concordance between mothers' and teachers' perceptions of behavior problems of children with developmental delays. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6 (1), 33-41.

Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1998). Issues and dilemmas in longitudinal research: A tale of two studies. Thalamus.

Keogh, B. K., Bernheimer, L. P., Gallimore, R., & Weisner, T. S. (1998). Child and family outcomes over time: A longitudinal perspective on developmental delay. In M. Lewis & C. Feiring (Eds.), Families, Risk, and Competence (pp. 269-287). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Keogh, B. K., Bernheimer, L. P., & Guthrie, D. (1997). Stability and change over time in cognitive level of children with delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation 101, 365-373.

Keogh, B. K., Bernheimer, L. P., Haney, M., & Daley, S. (1989). Behaviour and adjustment problems of young developmentally delayed children. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 4 (2), 79-90.

Keogh, B. K., & Burstein, N. D. (1988). Relationship of preschoolers' temperament to interactions with peers and teachers. Exceptional Children, 54 (5), 69-73.

Keogh, B. K., Coots, J. J., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1996). School placement of children with nonspecific developmental delays. Journal of Early Intervention 20 (1), 65-97.

Nihira, K., Weisner, T. S., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1994). Ecocultural assessment in families of children with developmental delays: Construct and concurrent validities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98 (5), 551-566.

Schneider, P., & Gearhart, M. (1988). The ecocultural niche of families with mentally retarded children: Evidence from mother-child interaction studies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9, 85-106.

Schneider, P., & Haney, M. (1992). Relation of child behavior and activity type to maternal directiveness and sensitivity in interactions involving preschoolers who are developmentally delayed. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 20 (2), 13-23.

Schneider, P., Weisner, T. S., & Gallimore, R. (1997). Family and child factors contributing to "successful story time interactions" with children with developmental delays.
Developmental Disabilities Bulletin. 250, 33-49.

Weisner, T. S. (1993). Ethnographic and ecocultural perspectives on sibling relationship. In Z. Stoneman & P. W. Berman (Eds.), Siblings of Individuals with Mental Retardation, Physical Disabilities and Chronic Illness (pp. 51-84). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Weisner, T. S., Beizer, L., & Stolze, L. (1991). Religion and the families of developmentally delayed children. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 25, (6), 647-662.

Weisner, T. S., & Gallimore, R. (1989). Ecocultural niche of families with developmental delayed children. Society for Research in Child Development, Kansas City, April, 1989.

Weisner, T. S., & Gallimore, R. (1994). Ecocultural studies of families adapting to childhood developmental delays: Unique features, defining differences, and applied implications. In M. Leskinen (Ed.), Family in Focus: New Perspectives on Early Childhood Special Education (pp. 11-25). University of Jvaskyla, Finland, Studies in Education, Psychology, and Social Research, 10.

Weisner, T. S., Matheson, C., & Bernheimer, L. (1996). American cultural models of early influence and parent recognition of developmental delays: is earlier always better than later? In S. Harkness, C. M. Super, & R. New (Eds.), Parents’ Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions and Consequences (pp. 496-531). New York: Guilford Press.

Weisner, T. S., Matheson, C., Coots, J. J., & Gallimore, R. (1997). Sustainability of daily routines as a family outcomes. Paper presented at Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, DC, April, 1997.

Westerman, C., Keogh, B. K., & Bernheimer, L. P. (1997). Factors related to the selection and use of services for young children with developmental delays. European Journal of Special Needs Education. 12 (1), 30-37.

Ph.D. Dissertations


Coots, J. J. (1992). Factors accounting for variations in parent participation in schooling activities for their children with disabilities. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

Daley, S. E. (1988). The development of behavior problems for students with low intelligence. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

DeCicco, M. (1993). Families of Children with Developmental Delays: Parental Affective Attitudes-Expressed Emotion and Child Behavior. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

Haney, M. (1989). The effects of child characteristics and maternal theories on interactions between developmentally-delayed and normally developing children and their mothers. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.
Mastergeorge, A. (1991). Mothers of developmentally delayed and non-delayed children: a comparison of lea learning environments maternal beliefs. and tutorial interactions. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

Ratekin, C. S. (1990). Temperament in children with Down Syndrome. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

Shapiro, C. (1993). Behavior Problems in Children with Developmental Delay: Impact on the Family Home Environment. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.

Supancheck, P. (1989). Effects of a dynamic assessment approach with developmentally delayed children. Unpublished dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles.
287-316). New York: Academic Press.