Ronald GallimoreEveryone's a teacher to someone (John Wooden)

The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study built on and expanded the TIMSS 1995 Video Study of mathematics teaching. Release of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study results garnered attention from those interested in teaching and learning. In part, this attention was due to both the novel methodology, in which national samples of teachers were videotaped teaching an eighth-grade mathematics lesson in their regular classrooms, and the differences in teaching among the countries. Three countries participated in the 1995 Video Study-Germany, Japan, and the United States-and comparisons of the results suggested that each country had a distinct cultural pattern of teaching mathematics. Discussion of results from the 1995 Video Study can be found in Stigler et al. (1999) and Stigler and Hiebert (1999).

Larger and more ambitious than the first, the 1999 study investigated eighth-grade science as well as mathematics, expanded the number of countries from three to seven, and included more countries with relatively high achievement on TIMSS assessments in comparison to the United States.

Mathematics Study

The mathematics portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study included 638 eighth-grade lessons collected from seven participating countries: Australia, the Czech Republic, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States. In each country, the lessons were randomly selected to be representative of eighth-grade mathematics lessons overall. In each case, a teacher was videotaped for one complete lesson, and in each country, videotapes were collected across the school year to try to capture the range of topics and activities that can take place throughout an entire school year. Finally, to obtain reliable comparisons among the participating nations, the data were appropriately weighted to account for sampling design. Sampling and participation rate information, as well as other technical notes, are detailed in an appendix to the report Teaching Mathematics in Seven Countries: Results From the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, from which this highlights summary is drawn (Hiebert et al. 2003). For more detailed discussion of the technical aspects of the study, see the technical report (Jacobs et al. 2003).

To read more about the Mathematics Study see this PDF.

Science Study

The countries participating in the science portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study included Australia, the Czech Republic, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States. The countries were selected based on their performance in mathematics in 1995. At that time, the other four countries outperformed the United States (on average) in science as well as in mathematics. In 2003, U.S. students’ average score in science was not measurably different from the average score in Australia and the Netherlands, but remained significantly below the average score of Japanese students. The Czech Republic did not participate in TIMSS 2003.

The science portion of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study included 439 eighth-grade science lessons collected from the five participating countries. In each country, the lessons were randomly selected to be representative of eighth-grade science lessons overall. Each country was required to sample 100 schools. The response rates of the final sample of schools participating in the study ranged from 81 percent (weighted) in the Netherlands and the United States, to 100 percent in the Czech Republic. From the schools that agreed to participate, one eighth-grade science class was randomly chosen from a list of all science courses in the school in which eighth-graders were enrolled. The randomly selected science class was videotaped for one complete period or lesson. No substitutions of schools or science classes were permitted. In each country, videotapes were collected across the school year to try to capture the range of topics and activities that can take place throughout an entire school year. In addition, teachers and students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the videotaped lesson.

To read more about the Mathematics Study see this PDF.

Key Publications

1999 TIMSS Video Study of Teaching

Roth, K. J., Druker, S. L., Garnier, H. E., Lemmens, M., Chen, C., Kawanaka, T., Rasmussen, Trubacova, S., Warvi, D., Okamoto, Y., Gonzales, P., Stigler, J., & Gallimore, R. (2006).
Teaching Science in Five Countries: Results From the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. (NCES 2006-011). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Givvin, K. B., Hiebert, J., Jacobs, J., Hollingsworth, H., & Gallimore, R. (2005). Are there national patterns of teaching? Evidence from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.
Comparative Education Review, 49, 3, 311-343.

Hiebert, J., Stigler, J. W., Jacobs, J. K., Givvin, K. B., Garnier, H., Smith, M., Hollingsworth, H., Manaster, A., Wearne, D., & Gallimore, R. (2005). Mathematics teaching in the United States today (and tomorrow): Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 27, 111-132.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A. M.-Y., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. W. (2003). Understanding and improving mathematics teaching: Highlights from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study.
Phi Delta Kappan, 84 (10), 768-775.

Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K.B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., Chui, A. M., Wearne, D., Smith, M., Kersting, N., Manaster, A., Tseng, E., Etterbeek, W., Manaster, C., Gonzales, P., & Stigler, J. (2003).
Teaching mathematics in seven countries: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. NCES (2003-013). U.S. Department of Education. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Jacobs, J., Garnier, H., Gallimore, R., Hollingsworth, H., Givvin, K. B., Rust, K., Kawanaka, T., Smith, M., Wearne, D., Manaster, A., Etterbeek, W., Hiebert, J., & Stigler, J. (2003).
TIMSS 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 1: Mathematics Study. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Stigler, J. W., Gallimore, R. & Hiebert, J. (2000). Using video surveys to compare classrooms and teaching across cultures: Examples and lessons from the TIMSS video studies.
Educational Psychologist, 35(2), 87-100.